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Stenciled circular, on behalf of the Executive Committee of the First Zionist Congress, on official stationary of the Executive Committee of the Zionist Congress ("Bureau des Zionisten-Congresses"), hand-signed by all five committee members, including Theodor Herzl. Vienna, October 25, 1897. German.
In this circular letter, Herzl and the committee members refer to the first Zionist Congress, held in Basel two months earlier, and describe it as a "Big success, victory for Zionism". Further on, they ask to emphasize the importance of transferring funds – "Shekel" (Schekel) – to enable the routine and continuous activities of the committee and list instructions to 'Shekalim collectors': rates of Shekel in various currencies (Franc, Shilling, Mark, Dollar and other currencies), receipts to be given to donors, from a booklet (most probably, a receipts-booklet originally enclosed with the circular letter), address of deposit (the home of Dr. Oser Kokesch in Vienna) and some other instructions. The committee members also mention that the above collection procedure is temporary, and that in the future, funds will be deposited in a bank in England. The circular letter ends with "Zionist greetings", and is signed by five committee members: Theodor Herzl, Oser Kokesch, Yona (Johan) Kremnitzky, Dr. Alexander Minz and Dr. Moritz (Moshe) Tobias Schnierer.
This copy of the letter has a number of additions and corrections written by hand, including the comment "begin immediately to collect the Shekel in your circle of acquaintances" (on top of the second page).
At the First Zionist Congress held in Basel, at the end of August 1897, several decisions were reached with the purpose of realizing the vision of the Zionist movement: it was decided to implement the Basel Program (which stated that Zionism seeks to secure for the Jewish people a publicly recognized, legally assured homeland in Palestine) and to establish various institutions that would serve to promote and realize the ideals of the movement, the first of these being the World Zionist Organization.
In the framework of founding the World Zionist Organization, a General Central Committee of 18 members was elected, and from these an Executive Central Committee consisting of five members – all residents of Vienna – was appointed, headed by Dr. Theodor Herzl. The role of the Executive Central Committee, was to serve as a high-level management body – a sort of 'government' – of the General Central Committee.
The five members of the first Executive Central Committee were Dr. Theodor Herzl [the father of Zionism as an institutional movement] who served as chairman, Dr. Oser Kokesch [attorney, one of the first members of 'Kadima' student association, among the founders of the Viennese Zionist 'Admat Yeshurun' association and member of the first committee of 'Otzar Hityashvut HaYehudim'], who served as secretary, Yona (Johann) Kremenetzky [wealthy Zionist entrepreneur and industrialist, pioneer of the European electricity industry, first chairman of JNF], Dr. Alexander Mintz [attorney, participated in the committee for formulating the Basel Program, member of the Committee for Practical Settlement], and Dr. Moritz (Moshe) Tobias Schnierer [author and personal doctor of Theodor Herzl, who also accompanied Herzl on his visit to Palestine in 1898, co-founder of 'Kadima' student association, 'Ahavat Zion' association and 'Admat Yeshurun' association, member of the Committee for Practical Settlement].
 leaves (3 written pages), approx. 29 cm. Good-fair condition. Stains, creases, defects and folding marks. Tears and open tears at margins and along folding marks (mostly small), some repaired with adhesive tape. Open tears to upper right corner of first leaf, and lower right corner of second leaf, not affecting text.
Der Judenstaat, Versuch Einer Modernen Lösung Der Judenfrage [The Jewish State, an Attempt at a Modern Solution of the Jewish Question] by Theodor Herzl. Vienna-Leipzig: M. Breitenstein, 1896. German. First edition. Printed in 300 copies.
Herzl's renowned book, "The Jewish State, an attempt at a Modern Solution", in which he presents the Jewish question and the need to find a political-national solution. This copy includes the original paper wrappers.
86 pp, 24 cm. Good condition. Unopened sheets. Some tears and creases at margins of leaves. Some stains (most of the stains are on the wrappers and title page). Margins of title page and a number of other leaves are slightly dark. Creases to wrappers. Front wrapper partly detached. Housed in a cloth-covered cardboard case.
"The Jewish State [Der Judenstaat], a new solution to the Jewish question, translated with special permission of the author by Michael Berkowitz". Warsaw: Tushia, 1896.
First Hebrew edition of the renowned book by Theodor Herzl, discussing the Jewish problem and the need for a national-political solution. This edition was published in the same year as the German edition.
, IV, 82, IV,  pp. (on the last pages appear advertisements for books published by Tushia), 17.5 cm. Fair condition. No wrappers. Stains. Tears at margins of leaves, professionally repaired. Ink-stamps and inscriptions in pen and pencil. Restored cardboard cover, with new spine. Housed in a cloth-covered cardboard case.
Three items related to Joseph Trumpeldor: a postcard sent from prison in Japan to his parents, a postcard with his photograph and a dedication written by hand (in Hebrew), and a Real-Photo postcard from prison in Japan. Japan, Russia, Galipoli and Egypt, 1905, 1915. Russian and Hebrew.
Joseph Trumpeldor (1880-1920) - one of the founders of the "Jewish Legion" and "HeChalutz" and commander of defense of Tel-Hai court in 1920. Trumpeldor was born in Russia, was the first Jewish officer to serve in the Russian army, serving also in the Russo-Japanese war, during which shrapnel crashed his left arm and it was amputated. In January 1905, when the Russian army was defeated in the battle on Port Arthur marine fort, Trumpeldor was captured by the Japanese. During his time in prison, Trumpeldor was engaged in founding Zionist and national institutions and organizations for Jewish prisoners, among them the society "Bne Zion Hashevuyim beYapan" [Jews in Japanese prison] (see hereunder, no. 2).
Trumpeldor relocated to Palestine in 1912 and worked as a farmer. During World War I he was among the founders of the "Jewish Legion" (with Ze'ev Jabotinsky) and participated in the Galipoli Campaign as deputy commander of the "Zion Mule Corps" and as commander of the corps. After the war Trumpeldor returned to Russia and was one of the founders of "Hechalutz" movement. In 1919 he returned to Palestine and was called to assist with the protection of the northern end of upper Galilee settlements. Trumpeldor was killed in the battle of Tel-Hai on Adar 11, 1920. His character and bravery led to him being considered a national hero in the history of Zionism.
1. A postcard sent by Trumpeldor from Japanese captivity to his parents in Russia. Sent from Hamadera camp (through Osaka), Japan, to Rostov-on-Don, Russia, October 1905.
An official prisoners of war postcard (Service des Prisonniers de Guerre), printed in Russian, with space for completing the name of the prisoner-sender (service number 16242, barrack 42) and details of the addressee (Wulf Samuelovich Trumpeldor, Joseph's father).
Trumpeldor writes to his parents: "Dear father and mother, we are still here, and still do not know when we are leaving. We go more out to the court, but the guards and the fence are the same. Despair deepens but 'hope is the food of the young…'. Kisses to all the family and regards to acquaintances. Love you, Osia". For additional information about the postcard, see enclosed material.
9 X 14 cm. Fair-good condition. Creases, tears, stains and wear, mostly at margins, professionally repaired, slightly affecting text.
2. Real-Photo postcard, photograph of Joseph Trumpeldor as a prisoner of war in Japan, .
Trumpeldor is seen standing straight in front of a barrack, with the inscription "Bne Zion M [Machane] Shevuyim beYapan" (Bne Zion prisoners camp in Japan) above him. Above the sign appear a Star of David with the word "Zion" in the center and seven-star flags. On the bottom of the postcard appears a handwritten inscription "J. Trumpeldor in Japanese prison" and on the back appears a handwritten dedication "…gift from our friends in Harbin".
9 X 14 cm. Fair condition. Creases, small tears and pinholes. Rubbings and peeling on the back, affecting the dedication.
3. Real Photo postcard, photograph of Joseph Trumpeldor wearing the Zion Mule Corps uniform. [Galipoli, 1915].
On verso appears a dedication handwritten by Trumpeldor, in Hebrew: "To Nisenboym, Trumpeldor. Captain Zion Mule Corps, Wardian Camps, 20/9/15".
The dedication was written in Wardian camp (Al Wardian), Alexandria, Egypt.
When World War I broke out, Trumpeldor was obliged – being a Russian national and officer – to leave Palestine and he left for Egypt, where he met Ze'ev Jabotinsky and joined his vision to establish a legion of Jewish volunteers who will fight with the British to take over Palestine. The Zion Mule Corps was the first among Jewish legions established by the British and served, in fact, as a transport unit of about 650 Jewish soldiers. Colonel John Patterson commanded the force and Joseph Trumpeldor served as his deputy, and even replaced Patterson as commander of the corps during the last months of its existence, when Patterson resigned due to an illness.
8.5 X 13.5 cm. Fair condition. Creases, small tears and pinholes. Rubbings and peelings on the back, affecting dedication. Pen inscription on margins of the back: "Joseph Trumpeldor".
L. Pasternak, his Life and Work, by Haim Nachman Bialik and Max Osborn. Berlin: Stybel Publishing House, 1924.
Leonid Osipovich Pasternak (1862-1945) – a fine monograph with 148 prints, including twenty four lithographs, and two essays about the artist and his work by Haim Nachman Bialik and Max Osborn.
Copy no. 58 from an edition of one hundred copies, with a lithograph signed by Pasternak – portrait of the author Émile Verhaeren.
On the first page appears a dedication written by hand: "to Ze'ev Jabotinsky, in memory of days when we fought and dreamt", signed by the poet Ya'akov Cahan and his wife Miriam. Dated: 24.3.1927.
Ya'akov Cahan (1881-1960), poet, translator and Zionist activist, winner of Israel Prize for Literature, in 1953 and in 1958. Known as one of the outstanding poets of the Revisionist movement, and author of some of its well known songs: "Shir HaBiryonim", "Shir HaZeva'ot" and other songs.
Zeev (Vladimir) Jabotinsky (1880-1940), Zionist leader, author and translator. Founder of the Revisionist Zionism. In his youth he dedicated his time to writing plays and literature but in 1903, following a series of pogroms in East Europe, he changed his views and became a committed Zionist. In World War I he was co-founder of the "Jewish Legion", Jewish units of the British Army, and later he himself joined the legion, in spite of his advanced age – 37. The dispute between Jabotinsky and the Zionist institutes, that were, in his opinion, too compromising, reached a peak when the "White Book" was published in 1922, after which Jabotinsky retired from the Zionist Organization and founded "Brit HaZionim HaRevisionistim"– the most extreme critic of the Zionist movement. In 1931 he undertook the role of Etzel commander and in 1936 instructed to "break the restraint" which marked the beginning of an open struggle against the British. During a visit to New-York in 1940, Jabotinsky died of a heart attack.
, 98,  pp + LXXIII plates and  unnumbered plates at the beginning of the book, approx. 32 cm. Good condition. Some stains and damages (mainly at margins and first and last leaves). Half-leather binding, slightly damaged, with rubbings and peelings to spine and corners, partly repaired.
Di geshikhte fun mayne layden [The Story of My Sufferings] by Mendel Beilis. Published by the author, New York, 1931. Yiddish and English. Second edition.
Book of memoires by Mendel Beilis, in which he tells the story of his life, the years of trial and imprisonment, immigration to Palestine and immigration to the United States.
On the page following the title page, under his portrait, appears a dedication handwritten by Mendel Beilis.
Menachem Mendel Beilis (1874-1934) was accused of murdering a Ukrainian Christian child named Andrei Yushichinsky in April 1911, to use his blood for preparing Passover Matzot. Beilis was imprisoned by false testimony and his trial began officially in September 1913. On the background of the "murder" and the trial, an incitement campaign was organized against the Jews. After two and a half years of imprisonment, in October 1913, Beilis was acquitted. After the 1917 revolution, a committee of inquiry was established to investigate the case. Its findings proved that the government knew the true circumstances and staged the trial for anti-Semitic reasons. Beilis immigrated to Palestine in 1914, but was not integrated financially or professionally and in 1920 immigrated with his family to New York. A number of years later he published his book of memoires in Yiddish and English.
This edition of the book opens with a letter from Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak Hacohen Kook, from 1930, addressed to American Jews, in which he writes that "Beilis went through bad experiences, in the spirit of truth and justice…" (Hebrew). Further on Rabbi Kook calls Jews in the United States to buy the book by Beilis "who is in a bad financial state, he is old and sick and 'no one pities him". The letter is printed in Hebrew with a Yiddish translation, and does not appear in other editions of this book.
319,  pp, 22 cm. Fair-good condition. Creases at corners. Some ink smears to dedication. Cloth-strips are pasted among the endpapers, at the attachment of the binding to the body of the book. Original binding, with restored spine. Open tears, unraveling and wear at margins of binding.
Interesting Autograph Letter by Albert Einstein, to his Sister – Written Following his Departure from Berlin, in Fear of his Life, in 1922 – References to Anti-Semitism and the Political Situation in Germany / Reference to his Planned Journey to Japan
An interesting letter handwritten and signed by Albert Einstein, addressed to his sister. No location mentioned [Kiel, Germany?], August 12, 1922. German.
Albert Einstein (1879-1955), Jewish-German physicist, one of the most prominent physicists in the 20th century, developer of the Theory of Relativity and one of the founders of the Quantum Theory. Nobel Prize laureate for Physics.
This letter was written by Einstein after he was obliged to leave Berlin, following the assassination of the Jewish-German Foreign Minister Walter Rathenau (at that time Einstein was warned by the police that his life is in danger). Einstein tells in this letter about an isolated life outside of Berlin (about the location of residence he writes: "Nobody knows where I am, and I'm believed to be missing"), and refers to anti-Semitism in Germany, to its political and economic future, and to his planned trip to Asia.
Although Einstein expresses in this letter a gloomy forecast about the future of Germany (this is one year prior to the coup attempt by the Nazi Party, in 1923), his writing still reflects his typical sense of humor and even some optimism.
Einstein writes: "I am doing quite well, in spite of all the anti-Semites among my German colleagues. I'm very reclusive here, without noise and without unpleasant feelings, and am earning my money mainly independent of the state, so that I'm really a free man. A university tenure abroad I won't accept any more. However, I had to join a League of Nations commission, which naturally upsets the people here. There was nothing I could do about it if I didn't want to be unfaithful to my ideals. Here are brewing economically and politically dark times, so I'm happy to be able to get away from everything for half a year. […] You see, I am about to become some kind of itinerant preacher. That is, firstly, pleasant and secondly - necessary. […] Don't worry about me, I myself don't worry either, even if it's not quite kosher; people are very upset. In Italy, it seems to be at least as bad, by the way...".
In 1922 three young Germans from the extreme right circles assassinated the German Foreign Minister Walter Rathenau. This political assassination, executed, among others, for anti-Semitic reasons shocked Germany. After the assassination, the police warned Einstein that his life is in danger and suggested to him not to attend lectures and even to leave Berlin. Following this, Einstein moved to Kiel (where, presumably, he wrote this letter) and cancelled a number of his lectures. Later on, in the same year, Einstein was invited to deliver a series of lectures in Japan, and went on a long journey to Asia (during this trip he was notified that he won the Nobel Prize for physics). When the Nazis rose to power in Germany, in 1933, laws against Jews were legislated according to which they were removed from public posts (including university positions). The Nazis persecuted the Jewish physicist as well; they disregarded Einstein's Theory of Relativity claiming that it is "Jewish physics". When Hitler rose to power Einstein was on a lecture tour out of Germany. In view of the situation in his country, he decided to renounce his German citizenship, and after a short period of wandering, he settled in the United States, where he was offered a position in the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New-Jersey. Einstein stayed in Princeton until his death on April 18,1955.
 leaf (two written pages), 27 cm. Good condition. Folding marks and some creases. Stains. Some tears to margins.
Archive of Letters and Documents – German Jewish Aid Committee – Documentation of Obtaining English Visas for Jews in Nazi Germany, a few Months Before the War Broke out and the Borders were Sealed – 1939
About 370 letters, documents, postcards and paper items belonging to Fritz Goldschmidt, representative of the German Jewish Aid Committee, who acted to obtain visas to enter England for Jews in Nazi Germany. London, Frankfurt am Main, Essen, Cologne and other locations, 1939. English and German.
The German Jewish Aid Committee was founded in 1933 by the Jewish Banker Otto Schiff, to assist Jews to escape from Nazi Germany to England. At first, the organization took upon itself the costs of arranging for the admission of refugees to England, their maintenance, training and employment. After the Kristallnacht, the number of immigrants was more than the organization could support and it almost collapsed. Since there was no assistance on the part of the English government, the representatives of the organization were forced to find businessmen, donors and families who could undertake the support of the refugees and they operated under very difficult conditions till after the breaking out of the war, when – finally – the English changed their policy.
This archive contains letters, copies, postcards and documents, recording the endeavors of one of the organization's representatives, Fritz Goldschmidt, to obtain visas and rescue Jews from Germany, shortly before Germany's borders were closed. In some of the letters, appears a reference to the transfer of children to English foster families – the Kindertransport – that was at its peak at the time.
The archive includes:
· Hundreds of letters, copies and postcards exchanged between Goldschmidt and applicants for English visas from Germany; the documents record the procedure of receiving the visas, the bureaucratic difficulties, the attempts to obtain funds and the stories of the applicants. Some letters refer to the children of the applicants and they document transfer of guarantees, confirmation of being accepted by a foster family and the transfer of children to England – the Kindertransport.
· About ten letters and postcards sent to Goldschmidt by Jewish residents in Kitchener camp in England, set up for Jewish refugees when the war broke out.
· Dozens of letters exchanged between Goldschmidt and rescue organizations, banks, organizations, and private business owners, trying to obtain money and assistance for absorption of the refugees (numerous letters are on official stationery). Among the organizations appearing in the correspondence: Movement For The Care Of Children From Germany, Emigration Advisory Committee; National Provincial Bank; Holland Bank Union; and numerous letters from other representatives of the German Jewish Aid Committee, and more.
· Nine official notices on behalf of the German Jewish Aid Committee announcing the issue of entry visas to applicants who were assisted by Goldschmidt.
· Four official application forms for an entry visa on behalf of the "German Jewish Aid Committee", printed and completed by hand, with details of the applicants, their occupation, the guarantee paid for them and more details.
· "Conditions for bringing men and boys of 16-35… to Great Britain under the Trainee Scheme" – a booklet printed on behalf of the organization, outlining the criteria for receiving an entry visa to England: economic situation, ability to earn a living, profession and other data. Not listed in OCLC.
· Other certificates, copies of forms, letters of recommendation and other items, gathered for obtaining a visas.
Size and condition vary. Good-fair overall condition.
Merkblatt für Angestellte und Mitarbeiter der Israel. Kultusgemeinde Wien, die über behordlichen Auftrag für die Vorbereitung der Umsiedlungstransporte bereitgestellt warden [Leaflet for employees and co-workers of the Jewish Community of Vienna, who received a resettlement edict by order of the authorities]. [Vienna, 1941]. German.
The resettlement (Umsiedlung) plan was the code name given by the Nazis to the operation of deporting Jews out of the Reich to East Europe, mostly to concentration and extermination camps. On February 1, 1941 Adolf Eichmann informed Dr. Josef Loewenherz, head of the Vienna Jewish congregation, about the intention to carry out ten transports weekly, and asked him to supply a list of the sick, elderly and welfare reliant persons. The Jews of Vienna were ordered to gather the candidates for deportation in a certain meeting point, and supply food to last until the date of their deportation. Between February 15 and March 12, 1941, about 5,000 Jews were deported from Vienna to the region of Kielce, and from there were transferred to Belzec and Chlemno extermination camps.
This leaflet, typewritten and stenciled, contains directions for Jews who were "chosen" to participate in the plan. The directions are written in a deceptive manner aiming at describing the transfers as a "service" for work and occupation purposes. Among others, the directions refer to the meeting point and the dates of transfer (referred to in the leaflet as "services"); receipt of a new identity card (referred to as a "business card"); the few belongings that the deportees were allowed to take with them (referred to as "recommended equipment prior to departure") – clothes, shoes, small ovens and tools; prohibition to participate in meals or ask visitors and family for food prior to departure; total obedience to the people in charge; grouping the deportees by age and physical condition; and more.
 leaf, approx. 30 X 21 cm. Good condition. Folding marks (slight). Some stains and tears at margins.
A postcard with a letter handwritten and signed by the Righteous among the Nations Oskar Schindler, to his wife Emily. Bonn, 1957. German.
It seems that Schindler sent this postcard during a visit to Bonn in West Germany, in an attempt to set up a cement factory in cooperation with German authorities: "Dear Emily! Yesterday [I] received a letter via Schoeneborn. I will write the answer on Saturday, without much ado. Today I will have talks about setting up a business with the government. Up to now, everything is much better than I hoped for. Kisses, Oskar. Regards to Willi".
Oskar Schindler (1908-1974) a German industrialist and entrepreneur, responsible for saving about 1,200 Jews during the holocaust. In 1939 he traveled to occupied Poland, acquired an enamelware factory and started to manufacture cookware for the German Army. His goals at the early days of the war were initially economic, but the encounters with his Jewish workers and the exposure to the scope of persecution led him to change his views and Schindler started to protect his Jewish workers. Gradually, his factory turned to be a shelter for Jewish workers, while Schindler faced more and more financial losses which almost eliminated his capital. His devotion to the rescue endeavors was endless, and Schindler was not averse to forgery of account books, bribery and using his relations in the Nazi party; he himself was involved in rescuing Jews who were sent by trains to extermination camps. As the Red Army drew nearer, Schindler took leave of his workers and fled westward penniless, after spending his entire fortune on the maintenance of the factory. After the war Schindler wandered to Argentina and started several businesses, however his financial situation was so bad that he depended on assistance from Jewish organizations.
For saving Jews during the holocaust Schindler was named Righteous among the Nations in 1967. His wife, Emily, the receiver of this postcards, was also named Righteous among the Nations in 1994.
Schindler's story became well known through Steven Spielberg's film "Schindler's List" that won the "Oscar" prize for best film, in 1993.
Approx. 14.5 X 10.5 cm. Good condition. Some stains. Creases and slight damages at corners and margins.
Thirty postcards and "Shanah Tovah" greeting cards sent by "She'erit Hapletah" holocaust survivors, post World War II. Germany, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Sweden and China, 1945-1949.
Most of the cards bear "Shanah Tovah" or "Ktiva veChatima Tovah" greetings in Hebrew; on some cards the greetings are printed in English or German. Many of the greeting cards bear personal greetings and letters written by the senders (in various languages: Yiddish, Polish and other languages).
17 of the items are Real-Photo postcards or Photo-Montage greeting cards, and in most of them – appear photographs of the sender, with other relevant illustrations or photographs (a ship sailing to Tel-Aviv, view of the Bergen Belsen Displaced Persons Camp, and more); 13 items are printed postcards or printed cards, some published by organizations and institutes such as the Culture Department of the Central Committee for Jews in Austria, the central bureau of JNF in Germany and Austria, and more.
Most of the cards were sent from Germany and Austria; a few were sent from Italy, Hungary, Sweden and China.
Size varies, approx. 5X9 cm to approx.10.5X15 cm. Good-very good overall condition. Stains and ink smears. Creases and wear to several items.
Appointment order of acting high commissioner to Palestine, hand-signed by King George V. August 17, 1928.
The order is printed on thick paper of very good quality; on the top margins appears a signature in King George's hand: George R.I. [Rex Imperator]. By the signature appears a seal with the coat of arms of the United Kingdom, and the legend: GEORGIUS V D G BRITANNIARUM OMNIUM REX F. D. IND. IMR. The document is also hand-signed by W. Seymour Hicks.
This order was issued in 1928, shortly prior to the arrival of the third High Commissioner, John Chancellor, and it authorizes the appointed official to replace the new commissioner in "the event of death, incapacity or removal". The appointed person is not mentioned by name, but in all likelihood it is Harry Charles Luke, the acting commissioner of the Mandate Government, who was Chancellor's "right arm" and was known as one of the most hostile officials toward the Jewish population. Luke is remembered in particular as the acting high commissioner during the 1929 riots (when Chancellor was in London), and many blamed him for the outbreak of the riots, the failure to stop the riots and the high number of casualties.
George Frederick Ernest Albert (1865-1936), King of England and Emperor of India between the years 1910 until his death, in 1936. Born as the second son of King Edward VII and served in the Royal Navy. After the death of his elder brother he became first in the line for the throne and in 1911 was crowned in Westminster Abbey in London. He was crowned king in a period of political tensions, and three years only after his coronation, in 1914 – World War I broke out. In the history of the Jewish Yishuv in Palestine King George is remembered mainly for the publication of the "Balfour Declaration", the historic document supporting the establishment of a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine, and his name was perpetuated in names of streets in Jerusalem, Tel-Aviv, Haifa and other places in the country.
2 written pages (sheet folded into two), 33 cm. Good condition. Folding marks. Some damage (mostly to margins). Small tear to top margins and a stain on the second leaf (blank), from the wax seal.
Enclosed is an expert's certificate of authenticity.
"HaHayil, Jewish Soldiers' Daily Newspaper". West Europe [probably Brussels], 1945-1946. Issues nos. 420-653.
The newspaper "HaHayil" was first printed in Italy under the name "LaChayal Alon Yomi LeChayalim Ivrim BeYabeshet Europe" (Daily newspaper for Jewish soldiers in Europe). Following the surrender of Nazi Germany, Jewish Brigade soldiers were transferred to the Low Countries, and the paper's editorial moved to Brussels, where the newspaper was printed with a new title. Offered here is a complete collection of all of the issues printed in Brussels, documenting the life of Jewish soldiers in Europe post World War II and the defeat of Germany.
Among other subjects, the articles deal at length with the subject of Palestine and the Yishuv – Illegal immigrant ships, establishment of new settlements, the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, relations between the Arabs and the Nazi regime and other subjects; the holocaust and She'erit Hapletah – first testimonies by survivors, maps and plans of ghettos and camps, news from the Nuremberg trials, testimonies by Jewish prisoners of war, attacks on Jewish populations after the war, displaced persons camps and more topics; as well as internal information about the brigade and its soldiers – sports competitions, letters from soldiers, testimonies and documents recording the Brigade battles (among them sketches of the movement of forces in the battle on the Senio River), tables and lists of the various units and the numbers of serving soldiers, and other subjects.
The paper also features poems and essays by authors who volunteered to the British army, documenting their experiences at the time – the poets Dov Chomsky, Amir Gilboa, Noah Stern (who was part of the editorial staff of the paper), Amazia Barlas (Independence War casualty), and others. Numerous photographs from Europe and Palestine also appear in the issues, as well as caricatures and drawings by various artists (Mane Katz, Henri Pieck, Avigdor Arikha, Esther Luria and others).
The issues are bound in four volumes according to the order of their appearance. On the front covers of each of the volumes appears a pasted note with the symbol of the paper and below it the number of issues (typewritten). The covers are signed by the editor, Shimshon Oxman (later – Shimon Arad), a senior official of the Foreign Ministry, who fought in the Jewish Brigade during World War II. Markings in pencil alongside essays written by Oxman appear in some of the issues.
Enclosed: LaChayal, daily news bulletin for Jewish soldiers in Europe. Italy. 5.3.1945. Issue no 1. Special edition of the paper dated 21.6.1946, present for readers of "HaHayil" from the "editorial and the administration".
Total of 234 issues bound in four volumes, approx. 33.5 cm. Condition varies. Good overall condition. Stains and some defects. Tears at margins of a number of leaves. Damaged and slightly worn bindings. Tears and open tears to spines. One volume is lacking spine; its back cover and last leaves are partly detached.
Torah Scroll in an Original Case with Finials – Cairo, Egypt / Inscriptions Commemorating the “Olei HaGardom” Eliyahu Hakim and Eliyahu Bet-Zuri – Lehi Fighters who Assassinated the British Minister of State in the Middle East and were Executed by Hanging
A Torah scroll in an original case adorned with finials, with inscriptions commemorating the "Olei HaGardom" Eliyahu Hakim and Eliyahu Bet-Zuri. [Cairo, Egypt, mid-20th century].
Ink on parchment; Sephardi script; cloth-covered wood; sheet-silver plaques, embossed and engraved; glass; ink on paper.
The Torah scroll is inserted in an original case in the shape of a prism with ten facets. Surmounting the case is a pair of massive silver finials (in the style characteristic of Egyptian finials). The case's exterior is lined with red velvet, nailed to which are various decorations including silver plaques cut in the shape of palm trees with clusters of palms (also characteristic of Egypt), Stars of David, and more.
Nailed to the case's right side is a silver plaques with an engraved commemorative inscription in Hebrew: "This Torah scroll is holy unto G-d… in memory of the two youths killed in one moment here in Egypt". Inside the case are two pieces of paper set under glass with vegetal decorations and the Hebrew inscription: "Holy unto G-d in memory of the Olei HaGardom, martyrs for the G-d of Israel" (late addition; identical on both sides of the case).
Lehi fighters Eliyahu Bet-Zuri (born in Tel Aviv, 1922) and Eliyahu Hakim (born in Lebanon, 1925) assassinated Lord Moyne, Walter Edward Guinness, who served as British Minister of State in the Middle East and resided in Cairo. Lord Moyne was considered anti-Zionist, acting to limit Jewish immigration to Palestine and promote the idea of establishing an independent confederation of the "northern Arab states" under British auspices.
Hakim and Bet-Zuri spent several weeks in Cairo preparing for the assassination. During these weeks they followed Lord Moyne's routine and planned the operation. On 6 November 1944 they lay in wait for his car, and when it arrived – Eliyahu Hakim opened its door, shot Lord Moyne three times and killed him (also shooting his bodyguard) while Bet-Zuri covered. The two fled the scene on bicycles on their way to the city market, but a policeman recognized them and managed to shoot Bet-Zuri. Hakim returned to aid his friend, leading to the capture of both men by the Egyptians. They were tried in an Egyptian martial court, sentenced to death and executed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 while singing "HaTikvah" (later the Israeli national anthem).
Hakim and Bet-Zuri were buried in the Jewish cemetery in Cairo. In 1975, on the initiative of Knesset member Yitzhak Shamir (one of the leaders of the Lehi movement; he knew Hakim and Bet-Zuri personally and had ordered the operation), their remains were brought to Israel as part of a prisoner exchange agreement with Egypt. They were buried in a military ceremony in the "Olei HaGardom" section of the Mount Herzl cemetery.
Another dedication appears at the bottom of one of the silver palm tree-shaped decorations: "To the memory of… Mr. Rozin Abu Rish…", and another inscription regarding the scribal emendation of the Torah scroll: "This Torah scroll was emended by Shlomo Hamsha…".
Case height: 90 cm. Good-fair condition. Defects and unraveling to cloth lining. Color peeling. One dedicational plate missing. Partly loose decorations, with slight defects. Finial height: 24 cm. Soldering repairs. Bends. Stains. One chain and bell missing. Parchment height: 43 cm. Good condition. Stains. Faded ink in some places.
Album of photographs and a collection of items which belonged to Etzel member Zrubavel Lilior from Haifa, who was arrested in 1944 and was detained for six months in Palestine (in Acre and in Latroun) and 45 months (!) in Africa. [Sembel, Asmara, Eritrea; Carthago, Sudan; Gilgil, Kenya, 1944/1945 until July 1948].
· Album with about 250 photographs taken in the different British Detention camps in Africa – in Eritrea, Sudan and Kenya – documenting daily routine in prison and especially sports competitions organized by the detainees. · Two improvised wooden sports medals made by hand, "In Asmara Exile", Hanukkah 1946, and awarded to the second place winner of high jump and long jump competitions. · "Service certificate" on behalf of Etzel chief headquarters, signed by Menachem Begin, with personal information about the holder of the certificate, including the total period of imprisonment and detention. · Member card (temporary), issued by the Kenyan Exiles, with the period of time of imprisonment in Palestine and in Exile.
The album contains numerous photographs documenting sports competitions – mainly football and athletics – among the detainees, photographs of theater plays performed by the detainees (including photographs from the play "Gale HaYam"), group photographs with the sign "Zion Exiles in Asmara", photographs documenting visit of South African chief rabbi in the camp, daily life in the camp (washing, haircut, kitchen, dining room, etc.), as well as a photograph titled "First hours of freedom". The album opens with 13 photographs of drawings by Etzel member, the painter from Haifa Leopold Pinchasovich, depicting the Sembel camp near Asmara during the year 1947, and ends with a number of photographs taken in Palestine after Lilior's release and a number of photographs of views and people taken in Africa (most probably not taken by Lilior).
Size of photographs varies, 4.5 X 4.5 cm. to 17 X 12 cm. Good overall condition. Some stains to several photographs. Some detached photographs. Album: 41X29 cm, in good condition. Wooden medals: approx. 6X3.5 cm (diameter: 3.5 cm). Very good condition.
Literature: Etzel in Red Haifa by Yehudah Lapidot (Hebrew). Published by "Brit Chayale HaEtzel", Tel-Aviv, 2006. Seventh Chapter – "In Prison".
Album of photographs documenting the soldiers of Givati Brigade Regiment 51, during the War of Independence. [Israel, late 1948/1949].
Album with about 750 photographs taken by a soldier in Givati Brigade regiment 51 during the War of Independence and afterwards. The photographs document the opening of the road to the Negev – "Operation Yoav" (October 1948) and the regiment and brigade soldiers during the war, in sites conquered from the Egyptians, during cease fire periods and during routine work in the bases.
The photographs document, among other things, technical departments – radio, mapping and more – of Givati brigade, mortars, armored vehicles, and airplanes which participated in "Operation Yoav"; Beit Govrin villa and the environs of Beit Govrin, Iraq Suwaydan police fort (present day "Yoav Fort") and possibly also the village Iraq Suwaydan, Tegart forts and unidentified villages in the area of the coastal plain and the northern Negev, military formations, ceremony of fixing the sign "Givat Arnon" (post 113, one of the "junction posts" named after Ya'akov Arnon who fell in the line of duty during the battle to occupy the post), ceremony of fixing the sign "Migdal Yoav" on Iraq Suwaydan police, ceremony of fixing the sign "Mishlat Haim" (after Haim Bolman who fell in the line of duty in Huleiqat battle; near Kibutz Gvaram) and the ceremony of fixing the sign "Givat Shimshon", various sites in Beersheba after the occupation, water wells dug in the desert, Arab population in villages, as well as portrait photographs of soldiers and some phptographs taken during leisure time activities, trips and excursions. A few photographs are signed in the plate "Photography service – Givati". A few photographs document personal occasions or trips not in a military framework.
The photographs were taken, most probably, by Yosef (Joachim) Ehrenberg, born in 1924, who was a student in the Technion in the mid 1940s and served in Givati brigade during the Independence War (enclosed are two more photo-albums with photographs by Ehrenberg including about 200 personal photographs, photographs from trips in the country and from his studies in the Technion. It is obvious from the photographs that Ehrenberg served in a position which matched his professional training in the Technion – maybe in the "Photography service" or in another technical department).
Size of photographs varies, approx. 4 X 5.5 cm to 11 X 15 cm. Pasted to thin paper leaves bound together as an album, 25X36 cm. Good overall condition. Stains at margins of some photographs and slight distortions due to pasting them to the leaves. A number of photographs were detached, in some cases – with the paper leaf. Enclosed are two albums with 200 additional photographs, not related to the War of Independence.
Ten newspapers and supplements printed on the days around the UN resolution and the Declaration of Independence. 1947-1948.
1. "The State will be established", special edition of "Haaretz". "Haaretz" press, Tel-Aviv, [29.11.1947]. Single leaf with the announcement: "A majority of two-thirds of the United Nations General Assembly decided in favor of establishing two states – Jewish and Arab – in Palestine".
2. Haaretz, issue no. 8586, dated 30.11.1947. Headline: "It was decided to establish a Jewish State".
3. HaBoker, daily paper, issue no. 3674, dated 30.11.1947. Headline: "Jewish State was approved, 33 states for, 13 against, 11 abstained… today you are a nation!"
4. Mivrak, evening paper, issue no. 125, dated 13.5.1948. Headline: "Agreement Signed – Jaffa Surrenders". Second edition.
5. "Yom Hamedinah", joint paper of the country's newspapers. Friday, May 14, 1948.
6. "The Mandate from Beginning to End" published by "Yediot Maariv", illustrated supplement, May 15,1948.
7. Mivrak, evening paper, issue no. 128, 17.5.1948. Headline: "Jewish army entered Ramla".
8. Yediot Yerushalayim", issue no. 34, 17.5.1948. Headline: "State of Israel fights the enemy who is attacking from four sides".
9. Issue of Minhelet HaAm, edicts and announcements. Published in Tel-Aviv on 10.5.1948. "Hapoel Hatzair" press, Tel-Aviv, 1948. No other issues were printed.
10. Iton Rishmi, issue no. 1. Printed with authorization granted by the Provisional Government, "Hapoel Hatzair" press, Tel-Aviv, 14.5.1948.
Size and condition vary. Good-fair overall condition. Stains, creases, folding marks and slight tears at margins of some issues. "Yom HaMedinah" paper in fair condition, with tears at margins and along folding line, and strips of adhesive tape at margins and along the front page folding line. "Yediot Yerushalayim" in fair condition, with long tears at margins.
Twenty nine newspapers printed on the day of the Declaration of Independence and the following days. Tel-Aviv, Haifa, Jerusalem and other places, 1948. Hebrew, some English and German.
"The newspapers of the year 1948 constitute, it seems, a special corpus. They enable us to glance over our shoulders at those heroic days of 1948, and at Israel fighting for its life… The Zeitgeist (Spirit of the period) rises from the pages" (out of: "A state is born" by Mordechai Naor, published by "Institute for Study of Hebrew Journalism", 1998, p. 2).
The collection includes:
· Seven newspapers from the day of declaration, 14.5.1948: "Yom HaMedinah", a joint newspaper of all of the country's newspapers; Iton HaMagen, issue no. 5. Headline: "From Decision – to Realization"; Mivrak, evening paper, issue no.126, headline: "British Mandate ended, a Jewish State to be established"; Yediot Yerushalayim, published by journalists for readers of "Davar", "Haaretz", "Haboker", "Hamashkif", "Hazofeh", headline: "The Jewish State will be declared Today"; and more.
· Three Newspapers from Saturday evening after the declaration, 15.5.1948: Mivrak, evening paper. Headline: "State of Israel was established"; Iton HaItonaim (paper of journalists). Headline: "First day of the State of Israel"; "Mandate from beginning to end", illustrated supplement published by "Yediot Ma'ariv".
· Eleven newspapers from Sunday following the declaration, 16.5.1948: Davar, issue no. 6946. Headline: "State of Israel was Established"; Haboker, issue no. 3817. Headline: "State of Israel revived"; Yom Yom, issue no. 78. Headline "Latrun and Dir Ayub in the hands of our forces"; Haaretz, issue no. 8729. Headline: "Vision of generations: State of Israel Established"; "Hazofeh" newspaper. Headline: "State of Israel Established – Long live!"; Yediot Yerushalayim, published by journalists for readers of "Davar", "Haaretz", "Haboker", "Hamashkif". Headline: "State of Israel Revived"; Yediot Hayom, issue no. 1089. Headline: "Errichtung des Judenstaates" [establishment of a Jewish State], and more.
· Eight newspapers and periodicals published around the same period: Yediot Achronot, issue no. 3429, dated 12.5.1948. Headline: "British Mandate will end on Saturday at Midnight"; Ashmoret, issue no. (85) 17, dated 13.5.1948. Headline: "On May 15,1948 the State of Israel will be Declared!". Four "Doar Ivri" stamps are pasted on the title page, ink-stamped: "Tel-Aviv, 16.5.1948". Karnenu, issue no. 5, [ca. 6-8,1948]. First issue to the independence of the State of Israel (Hebrew); Hapoel Hatzair, issue no. 34, dated 19.5.1948. The text of the independence scroll and the first manifest appear on the title page; Haboker, issue for children, fifth year, issue no. 37 (245), date 20.5.1948. On the title page appear a colorful illustration by Isa [Isa Hershkovitz], and the writing: "Jewish State was Established" (Hebrew); Kol Yalde Aliyat HaNo'ar, published once a month by and for Aliyat HaNo'ar children in France, issue no. 7, ; and more.
Enclosed: Davar Leyalde She'erit Hapletah, supplement to "Des Vort", issue no. 9, date 20.5.1949; "A state is born…", edited by Mordechai Naor. Published by "The institute for study of Hebrew Journalism, Independence House", Tel-Aviv, 2016.
A detailed list will be sent upon request.
Size and condition vary. Good-fair overall condition. Folding marks, stains, creases and some damages (mostly slight). Tears and open tears, mainly at margins and along folding lines, most of them repaired. Three newspaper are missing pages. The first page of "Hapoel Hatzair" paper from 19.5.1948 may be lacking.
Documents and Photographs – Declaration of Independence of Israel / Final Draft of the Scroll of Independence of Israel / Invitation and Entrance Ticket to the Declaration of Independence Session – From the Estate of Shlomo Kaddar
Seventeen documents, tickets and photographs from the estate of Shlomo Kaddar, one of the organizers and photographers of the ceremony of the Independence Declaration of Israel. Tel-Aviv and Jerusalem, 1948-1953 (most of the items are from 1948).
Diplomat and public figure Shlomo Kaddar (1913-1987) was born in Münster, Germany, to a liberal Jewish family. In his youth, he was attracted to the Zionist movements that flourished in Germany at the time. In 1933, he immigrated to Palestine with "Aliyat HaNo'ar" and was accepted as a member of Kibbutz Na'an. In the early 1940s, he joined the Haganah underground movement where he was appointed a senior guide and served as a commander in the Jerusalem zone. In 1948, prior to the declaration of independence, Kaddar held a senior position in the government secretariat. As such, he was involved in planning and implementing some of the most important events in the early history of the State of Israel: flying the coffin of count Folke Bernadotte to Rhodes, organizing the first IDF military parade and more. The most significant event with which he was involved was the Declaration of Independence of Israel. Kaddar was responsible for preparing and designing the hall in which the ceremony took place, printing the Scroll of Independence for the ceremony participants, and organizing the ceremony itself. When the ceremony ended, Kaddar took the signed vellum Scroll of Independence and deposited it in the safe at the Anglo-Palestine Bank on Herzl Street.
After the establishment of the State of Israel Kaddar turned to a diplomatic career, serving as an Israeli representative in several foreign countries and cities (Paris, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Prague and more) and in senior positions in the Jerusalem Municipality. Kaddar died in 1987 at the age of 73.
The collection includes important documents from the Kaddar Archive, related both to the Declaration of Independence itself and to the period in which it took place:
Documents and photographs from the Declaration of Independence ceremony
1. Draft of the Scroll of Independence, typewritten and duplicated, with four corrections in handwriting (all of which appear in the final version of the scroll) and one interesting typewritten correction: in paragraph 13, concerning the provisional institutes, the text "the provisional state council, and the executive council" was revised and changed to emphasize the hierarchy among the institutes: "The Provisional State council will act as the state council and its executive institute."  pp (typewritten on three separate leaves).
2. "Declaration of the Provisional Council, Iyar 5, 5708, May 14, 1948." Brochure with the final version of the text of the Scroll of Independence. Apparently, this document was prepared only a few hours prior to the declaration ceremony by Dorit Rosen, secretary of Ze'ev Scharf, and distributed to participants in the ceremony. (See: Mordechai Naor, "Great Friday, 5 Iyar, 5708", published by "Mikve Israel", 2015, pg 83). 3 pp.
3. Entrance ticket to the ceremony hall, in the name of Shlomo Kaddar, dated May 13, 1948 (one day before the ceremony), with his photograph, ink stamp of the "Haganah" and signature of the authorizing officer.
4. Official invitation to the "Declaration of Independence Session" on behalf of "Minhelet Ha'am" (the Provisional Government), printed on May 13,1948: "[...] We are honored to send you an invitation […] Please keep the content of this invitation secret […]."
5. "Mo’etzet Ha'am, Declaration of Independence Session, Tel-Aviv, May 14, 1948." Entrance ticket to the ceremony, in the name of Shlomo Kaddar. A note is attached with the seat assigned to Kaddar (row 5, seat 3, in the middle).
6-13. Eight black and white photographs from the ceremony, taken, most probably, by Shlomo Kaddar. The photographs are slightly different from the ones taken by the professional photographers who were officially invited to the ceremony (Rudi Wiesenstein, Benno Rothenberg, Hans Pinn and others). They document the ceremony from a different, original and possibly unique perspective: two (different) photographs of David Ben Gurion reading the declaration; Moshe Sharet and David Ben Gurion shaking hands; Golda Meir signing the Scroll of Independence; David Remez signing the Scroll of Independence; Israel Galili and Moshe Sneh during the ceremony; a crowd gathering at the entrance to the Tel-Aviv Museum where the ceremony took place; photographers waiting in the street for the end of the ceremony. Pasted to thick leaves. Enclosed: original cardboard folder.
Items related to later public activities of Shlomo Kaddar:
1. First Knesset, entrance card to the Knesset offices, in the name of Shlomo Kaddar. Ink-stamped: "State of Israel, First Knesset, Secretariat." Handwritten inscription on the upper margins noting the seat assigned to Kaddar in the hall.
2. Membership card in the "Central Elections Committee of the Constituent Assembly" in the name of Shlomo Kaddar, dated January 23, 1949. With portrait photo of Kaddar, ink-stamp of the committee and the signature of the general secretary Moshe Brachmann.
3. Letter dated December 18, 1949, typewritten on official State of Israel letterhead, sent by Avraham Biran (Bergman), district of Jerusalem officer, to Shlomo Kaddar at the Israeli legation in Paris. Ink-stamped by the legation.
4. Letter of greeting from Moshe Sharet to Shlomo Kaddar; handwritten on official Foreign Ministry stationery, dated July 13, 1953.
Total of 17 items. Sizes and conditions vary. Good overall condition.
Provenance: Private collection, Israel; purchased at Ben-Ami Endres Auctions, Israel, April 1998.
Withdrawn – Recording of Menachem Begin’s “Proclamation of the State” Speech on “Kol Tzion HaLochemet” Radio Station – May 15, 1948 – First Publication of the Recording Archived Immediately Following the Broadcast
This lot was withdrawn from the auction.
Unique recording, never published, of Menachem Begin's speech on 6 Iyar 1948, one day after the establishment of the State of Israel.
On Saturday night, 6 Iyar (15 May) 1948, the evening of the first day of Israel's independence, Menachem Begin delivered a speech on the Irgun's underground radio station, "Kol Tzion HaLochemet" ("Voice of Fighting Zion"). In this speech, which constitutes a kind of alternative "Declaration of Independence" instead of the one delivered by Ben-Gurion, Begin addresses the dismantling of the paramilitary groups, the need for a strong and well-trained army, the essential foreign policy with the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R., repatriation of Jews, and more. In fact, in this speech he lay down the ideological foundations of the party he was about to form – the Herut Movement.
This was Menachem Begin's first public speech since he had gone underground, and the last broadcast of the "Kol Tzion HaLochemet" station (after Begin's speech it was immediately changed to "Kol HaHerut" – "The Voice of Freedom").
Due to reasons that have yet to be clarified, Begin's associates decided to archive the speech recording immediately after its broadcast. The text of the speech familiar today (the "Reddening Sunrise" speech) is based on an early draft that is different from the broadcast speech. The current recording was preserved, though it was believed to have been lost, and it allows us to hear the words of one of the most prominent leaders in Israel's history, as broadcast in an emotional speech to the citizens of Israel at the establishment of the State.
In his time Begin was considered a masterful speaker. Throughout his political career he delivered speeches that became etched in the Israeli national consciousness, such as his speech against the agreement to receive reparations from Germany, the speech during an election rally in 1981 (in response to the "Riffraff Speech"), the speech following Anwar Sadat's visit to Israel and other speeches.
The present recording constitutes an example of Begin's captivating style and great talent. Though he was not speaking before a crowd but rather into a microphone in a closed room, the pathos and excitement in his voice are palpable, unlike the recording made years later in which he reads the speech in a merely informative manner.
At the beginning of the speech Begin makes a kind of "second proclamation" of the state's establishment: "The State of Israel has been founded, and it has been founded 'only thus' ["Only Thus" was the slogan of the Irgun]: with blood and fire, with a strong hand and an outstretched arm, with suffering and sacrifice"; further on Begin speaks of the Hebrew army and the Jewish fighters: "The Hebrew army can and must be one of the best-trained and excellent armies in the world… what is the spirit of our fighters? This was shown by all of the Hebrew youth, the youth of the Hagana, of Lehi and of the Irgun… the likes of which no generation in the generations of Israel, from Bar-Kokhba to the Bilu'im, had ever seen"; and of the dismantling of the Irgun: "The National Military Organization [Irgun] now leaves behind its underground existence in the boundaries of the independent Jewish state… in the State of Israel we shall be soldiers and builders. We shall observe its laws, since they are our laws. We shall respect its government, since it is our government. Only beware of the Hebrew government… lest it itself create… a new underground movement".
Begin often deviates from the written text for emphasis, repetition and expansion, and in certain places he even adds entire paragraphs that were not printed in the known published version – such as the role of the Hebrew mother in founding the state: "Heroic daughter of Israel, who shall tell of your heroism. For we have known your tears in the night… Hannah and her seven sons is no longer a legend, you are Hannah, thousands of Hannahs…"; the historical suffering of the Jewish people: "This mighty event has transpired after seventy generations, seventy generations of dispersion, disarmament, enslavement, of endless wandering and persecution…"; the contribution of the United States to the state's founding; and more.
The Story of the Present Recording
Two days prior to Begin's speech on "Kol Tzion Ha'Lochemet", an emissary on behalf of Ben-Gurion arrived at the Irgun's headquarters in the Freud Hospital in Tel Aviv and delivered Ben-Gurion's request to see the draft of Begin's speech, apparently in order to coordinate between the state proclamation speeches of the two leaders. At first Begin agreed to the request, but following the opposition of his colleagues in the Irgun command he was obliged to reject it.
This significant event is not documented in the literature dealing with the establishment of the state, nor is it mentioned in Ben-Gurion's writings. It is briefly mentioned only in Begin's book, "The Revolt":
"We decided that if the proclamation establishing a government is published on Friday, the statement of the Irgun would be delivered to the public on the following day, on Saturday night, 6 Iyar 1948. However, a day or two earlier… a personal emissary from Ben-Gurion arrived at our headquarters wishing to inform me that the Chairman of the Jewish Agency asked to see the text of the speech I was about to broadcast. We may assume – and perhaps understand – that Mr. Ben-Gurion had reasons for showing early interest in the Irgun's public statement. Also, his request was delivered in a good spirit. I had no reason to withhold our position from the future Prime Minister of the Provisional Government; I therefore agreed to provide him with the text of the speech after preparing it. However my associates thought my agreement was unjustified. I accepted their opinion. Ben-Gurion's emissary was answered in the negative, and I have no regrets about this. I do have regrets regarding another matter involving the content of my speech". ("The Revolt", Menachem Begin. Tel Aviv: Ahiasaf, 2003, pp. 504-505).
On Saturday night, 6 Iyar 1948, at 8 pm, Menachem Begin addressed the microphone, and in a live broadcast on the Irgun's radio station, delivered his speech to the nation in an excited voice. He read the speech from a draft written in advance, yet during the speech he deviated from the written version, inserting many changes and additions.
According to several accounts, Begin was tense on the day of the speech's broadcast. The reason for the tension was not only the significance of the event, but also various issues involving the content of the speech. Apparently, Begin was angry about changes made in the version he had written in advance.
Begin's entire speech was etched on records, but after the broadcast a decision was taken by the Irgun command to archive the recording and publish only the version of the speech Begin had written prior to the broadcast. This text was printed in a booklet published by the Irgun, and about four years later a new recording was made, of Begin reading the speech from the written text. The reason for archiving the original recording remains unknown, and may have to do with the issue in the speech's content regarding which Begin speaks with regret in his book "The Revolt" (see above). In fact, the version of the speech broadcast on "Kol Zion Ha'Lochemet" has not been documented or published previously. The present copy of Begin's recorded speech, as it was broadcast on the radio, was preserved despite the decision to destroy the recording.
In the early 1970s this copy reached the hands of the present owner's father, given to him by a person who was among the operators of the radio station on the night of the speech's broadcast. This individual revealed the story of the recording and asked that his identity remain secret and that the recording be published not before 20 years had passed since Begin's death. According to the receiver, this is what the man told him: "After the speech there was an argument and the commander demanded that only the speech he had written two days earlier be published. The other members agreed to his demand and someone decided that if so, the records should be discarded… in 1948 I did something I felt I had to do and I'm not sorry, it would have been a crime not to preserve it. So I have it! And four years later, when I could and it was possible, I copied the records onto a machine with a paper spool and it was only then that I got rid of them, as I had promised to do. None of my friends knew I had the recording… To this day no one mentions the recording from '48, as if it never existed. If they knew I had it, they'd go crazy. That's why, all these years, I did not sleep well at night… take it, save what you can and preserve it for future generations. Don't tell anyone about it yet and only twenty years after Begin's passing, do what you will with it, but remember, his friends won't like it, so perhaps wait even longer".
Indeed, the recording was preserved, in secret, for 32 years, and following the request of Begin's close friends it was not published for 12 more years after they learned of its existence.
Menachem Begin and David Ben-Gurion
The rivalry between David Ben-Gurion and Menachem Begin, the founders of Israel's two ruling parties, was known as one of the most bitter and fundamental rivalries in the country's history. Ben-Gurion, who was hostile to the Revisionist Zionism movement for many years, first learned of Begin's existence in 1944, after the former was appointed commander of the Irgun. In a meeting meant to ease relations between the factions, held in that year, major differences of opinion were found to exist regarding the struggle against the British, and a short time after the meeting's collapse the "Saison" period began – the Hagana's operation to investigate and turn in members of the Irgun.
Tensions between the two leaders came to a head about five weeks after the establishment of the State of Israel, with the Altalena affair, which was the most violent open confrontation between IDF and Irgun forces. At the center of the affair was the ship Altalena, which reached Israel's shores with 940 immigrants and a large stash of weapons. In opposition to David Ben-Gurion's orders, Menachem Begin refused to turn the weapons over to the IDF, insisting on transferring part of them to Irgun forces in Jerusalem.
On the morning of 22 June 1948 Ben Gurion ordered the IDF's Chief of Staff, Yigael Yadin, "To take all the steps necessary… to force the ship into unconditional surrender", and after a short ultimatum the Altalena was shelled with heavy fire and burst into flames. Menachem Begin, who was aboard the ship, ordered his men to refrain completely from exchanging fire, so as to prevent a "civil war".
After the establishment of Israel the rivalry between the two men took on a political character; in addition they became personally acquainted. Their relationship was rocky, but eventually Ben-Gurion completely changed his opinion of Begin, showed appreciation of him and would even invite him to personal meetings in order to exchange opinions and ideas. On the eve of the Six-Day War Begin travelled to Sde Boker with the intention of persuading David Ben-Gurion to return to the post of Prime Minister, and at the end of the meeting Ben-Gurion said: "If I had known Begin as I know him today, history would have been different".
Begin's meeting with Ben-Gurion's emissary prior to the proclamation of the state raises the possibility that already in 1948, the opportunity for collaboration and acquaintance between the two leaders had appeared. Perhaps if Begin had agreed to the request to reveal his speech to Ben-Gurion, different political relations might have developed between them, and perhaps some of the historical consequences of their rivalry might have been avoided.
Begin's speech lasted about half an hour. The speech contains ten segments etched on five records, on both sides, with each segment about 3 minutes long – totaling about 30 minutes. Later the records were transferred to a recording spool made of thin paper, which deteriorated with time, and in the early 1970s they were transferred to a new, magnetic recording spool which was coiled inside the original metal container in which the first paper spool was kept.
1. Confirmation of the transfer of the recording's ownership and publication rights to the buyer of the item.
2. Digital recording of the speech.
3. Transcription of the recorded speech, with markings where additions and omissions were made in comparison to the published text.
4. The booklet "Address of the Chief Commander of the National Military Organization to the People of Zion" (Jerusalem, 1948). Hebrew.
"First Day of Hebrew Post". Minister Sheet (souvenir sheet) - with the first nine stamps of the State of Israel, May 16, 1948.
Nine "Do'ar Ivri" postage stamps, in the value of 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 50, 250, 500 and 1000 Mils, pasted on an official souvenir-sheet on top of which appears the printed caption "Iyar 7, 5708, 16.5.1948" and "Do'ar Ivri" and on the bottom part – "Hayom HaRishon Shel HaDo'ar HaIvri" (first day of Hebrew post). Stamped with six postal stamps from Tel-Aviv, May 16, 1948.
This souvenir sheet is named "Minister Sheet" since it was distributed to ministers and to VIP's. In its first edition only 40 copies were printed, on thick yellowish paper, and the stamps were pasted on them between midnight and the morning of May 16, 1948.
Since all of the stamps qualified for sale were already sent to the post offices, it was decided to use for these sheets experimental stamps, or stamps which were especially perforated in Perf. 10 line; as a result, on some of the sheets appear stamps with particularly rare perforations.
This sheet includes stamps in the value of 1000 and 250 Mils with a rare perforation of 10X10; a 15 Mils stamp with a very rare perforation of 10¾; stamps in the value of 50, 10 and 3 Mils with a perforation of 10X11; the 3, 50 and 250 Mils stamps have perf. 10 line on the bottom of the tab (which does not exist in regular stamps). In addition, the 250 Mils stamp was printed on thin yellow paper.
26 X 21.5 cm. Good condition.
Enclosed is a certificate of authenticity.
Three letters handwritten by the poet Zelda [Zelda Schneersohn-Mishkovsky], addressed to her relative, the young man David Zvi Hillman and his family. [Jerusalem, 1930s-40s].
Warm, personal letters, full of good wishes. Zelda calls the young man "David my dear" and writes in a gentle and tender manner: "I have not written you for a long while, however, I have prayed in my heart for your happiness… you are truly good and have been created to give joy and to receive love and holiness".
Zelda begs him "Do not err… and think otherwise about yourself" and writes that "The worst and darkest sin of man is to think badly of himself…".
She ends the letter with: "Love the G-dliness within yourself and your abilities... I believe in your strengths and future. Yours from the depths, Zelda".
In another letter, apparently sent in honor of David Zvi's bar-mitzvah, she writes: "Today, you are an adult, be strong and take courage, young man. It is very difficult to be an adult. You and I are friends, David, and I now pray for you like I pray for myself, G-d should grant you a pure heart and a blessed creative life. Life can and should be precious and glorious…".
She extends this letter with a letter of good wishes (on a separate leaf): "To you, Mother Devora".
Another letter is written to "Grandmother, Mother and Father" with good wishes in honor of "The time David reaches adulthood": "My heart sends you more and more good wishes, blessing which are not written and are like prayers…".
The poet Zelda (Shayna Zelda) Schneersohn Mishkovsky (1914-1984), member of the Schneersohn family of Chabad rebbes. At the age of 11, she immigrated to Jerusalem together with her parents and her maternal grandfather, R. David Zvi Chen (a leading Chabad rabbi). A short while after their aliya, her father and grandfather died and she and her mother were left bereft without support. These long years of orphanhood left a strong imprint on her poetry.
In 1950, she wed Aryeh Mishkovsky (son of R. Chizkiyahu Yosef Mishkovsky Rabbi of Krynki). For many years, she earned her livelihood from teaching, avoiding the limelight. Although she wrote poetry and stories in her formative years, her first compilation of poetry was only published in 1967 at the age of 53. This anthology was acclaimed as soon as it was published, raising its author to new heights in the world of Hebrew poetry.
The recipient of these letters, David Zvi Hillman (1926-2010), was the son of Zelda's cousin Devorah. He grew to be an outstanding Torah scholar and a renowned Torah researcher (he edited a number of works by Rishonim, was one of the head publishers of the Shabtai Frankel edition of the Rambam, wrote important articles and published the book Igrot Ba'al HaTanya U'vnei Doro, Jerusalem, 1953).
 leaves ( written pages). 18.5 cm. 25.5 cm. Good condition. Filing holes. Folding marks. Few stains.
Collection of items related to the song "Jerusalem of Gold", including a leaf with the song's lyrics in Shemer's handwriting, the song's sheet music in handwriting, and a printed booklet with Shemer's signature.
The song "Jerusalem of Gold" was written by Shemer for the 1967 National Song Festival following a request by Mayor of Jerusalem Teddy Kollek, addressed to several songwriters, including Shemer, to compose a special song dedicated to Jerusalem. A few weeks after the debut performance of the song at the Song Festival (on Independence Day), the Six-Day War broke out. In a telegraph Kollek sent to Shemer he wrote: "All the IDF soldiers stationed in Jerusalem and its surroundings, and all the capital's residents, are always singing 'Jerusalem of Gold'. With the change in the city's borders, we ask that you add another, uplifting verse to the song".
Shemer, who at the time was in the Sinai Desert with an army band, heard IDF soldiers singing the song on the radio and added a new verse in which she compared the pre-war atmosphere to the post-war one. With "Jerusalem of Gold" Shemer became for many the "national songwriter". It is considered one of the most beloved Hebrew songs of all times among the world's Jews, and one of the most famous ones.
Naomi Shemer (1930-2004) composed many songs that joined the canon of Israeli culture. When she was awarded the Israel Prize for Hebrew Song in 1983, the judges' committee wrote that "her songs are on everyone's lips thanks to their poetic and musical quality, the wonderful fusion of word and melody and the expression they give to the sentiments of the people."
1. Leaf in the handwriting of Naomi Shemer, with the lyrics of "Jerusalem of Gold", including the verse added to the song after the Six-Day War. [June 1967].
The song's verses are written in four columns separated by lines; at the bottom is the refrain.
A copy of the handwritten song that is almost entirely identical to the present copy was printed by Shemer as the song's original and official handwritten version in June 1967 (see below). Apparently the two copies were written at the same time.
19.5 X 13.5 cm. Good overall condition. Folding marks. Foxing.
2. Leaf of sheet music with the notes to "Jerusalem of Gold" written in pencil on both sides of the leaf. At the top of the leaf is the title "Jerusalem of Gold – Naomi Shemer" in Shemer's handwriting. Handwritten notes appear on the leaf margins: "play one octave higher", "change at the end of the song", "or mezzo, the same chord".
17 X 24.5 cm. Good overall condition. Slight tears and creases. Stains. Tearing marks to left margins.
3. Printed booklet with the lyrics of "Jerusalem of Gold" in Hebrew and in Latin transcription. Self-published – "All rights reserved by Naomi Shemer", Arieli Press, Tel Aviv, [June] 1967.
Printed bristol sheet, folded in half, with a photocopy of the song in Shemer's handwriting (the copy appearing in this booklet is almost entirely identical to the copy of the song described above, no. 1), notes and transcription of the lyrics (not including the additional verse) in Latin letters. On the booklet's front cover is Shemer's signature, in pen, dated 13 July 1967. The Naomi Shemer Archive at the NLI contains a copy of this booklet with Shemer's dedication to her mother, dated 28 June 1967, attesting that the booklet was printed shortly after the song's additional verse was written, during the month of June.
Folded booklet, 12.5 X 17 cm. Good condition. Some stains.
This lot has been withdrawn from the auction.
A collection of about 320 original caricatures (ink on paper), by the illustrators and caricaturists Adar Darian, Ya'akov Shilo and "Ze'ev" (Ya'akov Farkash). Israel, ca. 1965-1973.
A rich collection of caricatures depicting in a sophisticated and critical manner a variety of subjects – current, political and social – which preoccupied the Israeli daily newspapers and Israeli citizens during the 1960s-70s, created by some of the leading Israeli caricaturists.
The collection includes caricatures that were published in the newspapers "Davar" and "Haaretz" and deal, among other things, with the War of Attrition, The French embargo on Israel, elections to the sixth Knesset, the 1960s economic recession, the relationships between Ben-Gurion and Levi Eshkol, irregularities concerning the health system and "Kol Israel", the relationships between Golda Meir and President Nixon, the Six Day War, Israel-Germany relations, peace talks in the Middle East (Rogers Plan), as well as international issues such as the Vietnam War, the Chinese-Soviet Split, Military coup d'état in Iraq, and more.
The collection includes:
· About 237 caricatures (228 are signed) by Adar Darian (1931-2015), Israeli caricaturist, graphic designer and illustrator, born in Romania, winner of the "Golden Pencil" award for 2012.
· About 59 caricatures (signed) by Ya'akov Shilo (born in Gedera, 1937), caricaturist and illustrator, winner of the "Golden Pencil" award for 2009.
· About 24 caricatures (Signed) by "Ze'ev" – Ya'akov Farkash (1923-2002), caricaturist and illustrator, winner of the Sokolow Journalism Award (1981) and Israel Prize for Communications and Journalism (1993).
· A number of unidentified caricatures (one by Gershon Apfel).
On the margins of the caricatures appear instructions for the printer (in pen and pencil) as well as ink-stamps of the newspapers in which they were published.
Total of about 320 caricatures. Size varies, approx. 14.5 X 21.5 cm to approx. 25 X 35 cm. Good overall condition. Stains to some (among them ink stains from preparations for print), folding marks and creases. Pasted pieces of paper (original). Pen and pencil inscriptions.